General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, Industry and Culture Collection

Established in 1785, The General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen (GSMT) is a non-profit organization serving the people of the City of New York for over two centuries, through educational, cultural and philanthropic programs. The 364 objects in the Industry and Culture Collection highlight items of institutional, metropolitan and national history held in the Society’s archival and museum collections.

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GSMT Independence Day Program, 1976
Souvenir program for GSMT's Independence Day celebrations, held on July 7, 1976, which included music, readings and a patriotic address.
GSMT Independence Day Program, 1982
Souvenir program for GSMT's Independence Day celebrations, held on July 7, 1982, which included music, readings and a patriotic address.
GSMT Interior, 18 West 16th St.
Photograph of interior of GSMT headquarters at 18 West 16th St.
GSMT Library 'One Week Overdue' Notice Card
GSMT library template card for 'one week overdue' notice.
GSMT Library 'One Week Overdue' Notice Letter
GSMT library template letter for overdue books.
GSMT Library 'Second Notice' Card
GSMT library template card for 'second notice' of late books.
GSMT Library 'Seven Day Books' Notice Card
GSMT library template card for 'seven days book' notice.
GSMT Library Account Verification Card
GSMT library template card for account verification.
GSMT Library Application for Books Card
GSMT library template card for 'book application' request to enable applicants to borrow books from the library.
GSMT Library Delinquency Notice Card
GSMT library template card for 'delinquent notice'.
GSMT Library Envelope
GSMT library department envelope.
GSMT Library Reading Photo, 1890
Photograph of interior of GSMT library dated 1890, showing men reading.
GSMT Library Reference Book Slip
GSMT library reference slip template.
GSMT Library Return and Book Request Slip
GSMT library template for 'book request' slip.
GSMT Library Rules
Set of rules (1-14) for the GSMT library. The library was established in 1820 as the Apprentices Library and is the second oldest library in New York City.
GSMT Library, 18 West 16th St
Photograph of interior of GSMT library when they were headquartered at 18 West 16th St.
GSMT Membership Meeting in Progress, 1960
Photograph of a meeting in progress at GSMT.
GSMT President Portrait, Albert G. Bogert
Albert G. Bogert (1817-1903); Initiated: 1857; Trade: Carpenter. Served the General Society as Second Vice President, and Vice President, as well as being a member of the Finance, School and Library Committees. A. G. Bogert was also a director of the Greenwich Bank for fifteen years, and a member of the Mechanics' Exchange.
GSMT President Portrait, Albert T. Strauch
Albert T. Strauch (1866-1933); Initiated: 1888; Trade: Piano Forte. For forty-five years a member of the society. His additional official service included Second Vice President (1914) and Vice President (1915). His active participation in the General Society also included the Library Committee for nineteen years and the Finance, School, Literary and Nominating Committees, for a total of thirty-one years of faithful service. Mr. Albert T. Strauch was also granted four United States patents for improvement of piano actions.
GSMT President Portrait, Alexander C. Walker
Alexander C. Walker (1884-1978); Initiated: 1912; Trade: Building Construction. Alexander Cameron Walker, born in New York City, was educated at New York Public School #109 and the Packard Commercial Institute, with additional study at the American Institute of Banking. The son of Scottish-born stonecutter and builder Alexander Walker (General Society President, 1912), he began work at his father’s Colonial Bank as a clerk in 1901, eventually advancing to President. He retired from this position in 1929 to pursue a career in Real Estate, while managing his father’s estate. He was a member of the General Society for sixty-five years, during which he also served as Second Vice President (1925) and Vice President (1926). He was also a longtime member and frequent chairman of the Executive and Finance Committees, as well as serving on the Library, Membership and School Committees. Other affiliations included the Burns Society of New York, the Lake Placid Club, the New York Athletic Club, Saint Andrew’s Society of the State of New York, and the West End Presbyterian Church of New York City.
GSMT President Portrait, Alexander Walker
Alexander Walker (1852-1934); Initiated: 1894; Trade: Builder. Born at the Parish of Rafford, Morayshire, Scotland, Walker was educated at the parish school of Rafford, and after his arrival in America, at a New York City high school. A member of the General Society for forty years, Walker additionally served actively for thirty-three years as Second Vice President (1910) and Vice President (1911), as well as participating on the Sinking Fund Committee (1899-1909, 1914-1915), Finance Committee (1913, 1916-1919, 1922-1928), and the Nominating Committee (1919-1921, 1929). Other affiliations included membership and presidential service of the St. Andrew's Society and the Colonial Bank of New York (President, 1892-1925; Chairman, 1926-1929).
GSMT President Portrait, Andrew G. Hagstrom
Andrew G. Hagstrom (1890-1977); Initiated: 1928; Trade: Map Maker. Graduate of Mechanics Institute (1913), Instructor of the Mechanics Institute (1924-1929, 1933-1937), Co-author of "Construction of Lettering for Mechanical Drafting," used for coursework at Mechanics Institute. Founder of the Hagstrom Map Company (1916). Also served the General Society as Second Vice President, Vice President, and for many years as a member of the Literary, Library, School (Chairman, three years) and Finance Committees.
GSMT President Portrait, Andrew H. Dykes
Andrew H. Dykes (1884-1944); Initiated: 1910; Trade: Lumber. Andrew Hamilton Dykes was born in New York City and educated at Hoboken High School. He furthered his study at the Mechanics Institute (1902-1907), graduating with a diploma in Freehand and Architectural Drafting; after this, Mr. Dykes became involved with the Alumni Association of the Mechanics Institute, serving for multiple years as an officer and President. His first employment was with John Leslie’s Company, where he learned the retail lumber business. In March 1909, he organized and headed the Dykes Lumber Company at 137 West 24 Street. His success in the field allowed him to expand throughout the metropolitan area, eventually reaching eleven locations. He was a member of the General Society for thirty-four years; besides his presidency, he served as Second Vice President (1932) and Vice President (1933). His Standing Committee work included the School Committee (1912-1915, 1920-1924, Secretary 1925-1931, 1932), Library Committee (1916-1919), Finance Committee (1936, Chairman 1937-1938), Membership Committee (1939-1944) and Development Committee (1928-1944). From 1928-1929 Andrew H. Dykes also served as the 16th president of the Rotary Club of New York. In addition, he was also the vice president of the Central Mercantile Association, and a director of the New York Lumber Trade Association and the New York Credit Men’s Association, and a vice president of the Springfield Golf Club. Memberships included the Saint Andrew’s Society and the YMCA, as well as Masonic and Elks Lodges.
GSMT President Portrait, Charles A. Cowen
Charles A. Cowen (1854-1909); Initiated: 1889; Trade: Mason and Builder. Over a twenty year period, Mr. Cowen took an active part in the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, in which he successively held the office of Secretary, Treasurer, Vice President and President, as well as service on the Finance Committee. Mr. Cowen was also President and Director of the Mason Builders' Association and a Trustee of the Mechanics and Traders' Exchange.
GSMT President Portrait, Charles H. Thornton
Charles H. Thornton (1905-1987); Initiated: 1961; Trade: Construction. Born in the old Benjamin House, a Bronx pre-Civil War landmark located at Gun Hill Road and White Plains Avenue, Charles H. Thornton attended New York City Public and Parochial Schools. He began work at age fifteen as an electrician’s apprentice, followed by learning his ancestral trade since 1846: work in the construction business as a bricklayer’s apprentice with the Bricklayer’s Union, Bronx Local #37, founded by members of his family. His next step was to enroll in the Mechanics Institute, where he received his Architectural Drafting diploma in 1927. Future study included courses in engineering at the City College of New York, geology at Columbia University and Real Estate at Fordham University. He continually advanced in his career, becoming a Forman of Structures with the New York City Tunnel Authority in 1941, and a Supervisor for the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. In 1948, he moved to the New York City Department of Buildings where he served as a Building Inspector, Senior Construction Inspector and Supervisor in Manhattan, ultimately receiving an appointment as Chief Inspector of Construction in the Bronx for the Housing and Redevelopment Administration of New York City. In addition to his presidency, Mr. Thornton served the General Society as Second Vice President (1966), Vice President (1967), and a member of the Museum Committee (1962-1965).
GSMT President Portrait, Charles J. Richter
Charles J. Richter (1850-1935); Initiated: 1907; Trade: Carriage Maker. For twenty-eight years a member of the Society. His additional official service included Second Vice President (1913), Vice President (1914) and Treasurer (1921). He was also elected to memberships on the School Committee (5 years), Finance Committee (12 years), Membership Committee (2 years), Nominating Committee (5 years) and Development Committee. He contributed a total of twenty-seven consecutive years of service to the Society. Mr. Richter was also a trustee of The Broadway Savings Bank.
GSMT President Portrait, Charles Murray
Charles Murray (1908-1994); Initiated: 1965; Trade: Plumbing. A native of Kinghorn, Scotland, who came to the United States in 1925. In 1941, Mr. Murray worked as a Civil Servant in the Panama Canal Zone. Graduate, Mechanics Institute (1948), earning the George E. Hoe Award for outstanding performance. Instructor in the plumbing program, Mechanics Institute (1949-1974). He also studied at George Washington University. In the mid-1970’s Charles Murray was employed as a mechanical project manager for the World Trade Center. He additionally served the General Society for many years as an officer and committee member, most notably as Treasurer (1976-1987). Other memberships included the Knights of Columbus and the Plumber’s Local Union #2.
GSMT President Portrait, Charles W. Hoffman
Charles W. Hoffman (1852-1931); Initiated: 1884; Trade: Dumb Waiters. A Dumbwaiter and Elevator Manufactuer by trade, Charles Hoffman was educated in the public schools of the City of New York. After a period of apprenticeship, he opened his own business on West Twenty-eighth Street; he worked in this capacity until his retirement in 1912. Besides his presidency, he officially served the General Society as Second Vice President (1901) and Vice President (1902). His participation on Standing Committes included the School Comittee (1896-1900, 1907-1917, 1921), the Library Comittee (1904, 1920), and the Finance Comittee (1904-1906, 1918-1919); his activities with the Society spanned a period of thirty-six years. Additionally, he was the oldest member of the Solon Masonic Lodge, as well as being a member of the York Commandery of Knights Templar and a member of the Shrine (thirty-second degree of Masonry).
GSMT President Portrait, Daniel Herbert
Daniel Herbert (1820-1910); Initiated: 1863; Trade: Mason. Additionally served the General Society for fourteen years, an an officer and member of the School, Finance and Literary Committees.
GSMT President Portrait, Edmund F. Rattey
Edmund F. Rattey (1870-1943); Initiated: 1903; Trade: Wire & Brass Worker. Born in New York City, Edmund F. Rattey attended public schools and the College of the City of New York. Upon graduation, he entered the business of his father, German-born Emil Rattey, at the Eagle Wire and Brass Works, established in 1861. During the First World War, he was the Chairman of the Liberty Loan and Red Cross Campaign for the United Wire Work Industry. He was a member of the General Society for forty years. Besides his presidential year he served in the offices of Second Vice President (1922) and Vice President (1923). Additional service included work on the Membership Committee (1904-1917, Chairman 1918-1921, 1928), Finance Committee (1925-1927), Nominating Committee (Secretary, 1928), Literary Committee (1932) and Library Committee (1933-1939). Mr. Rattey was also affiliated with the Building Trades Employers Association, the Allied Building Metal Industry (Treasurer), and the Rotary Club of New York.
GSMT President Portrait, Ernst Lauckhardt
Ernst Lauckhardt (1872-1942); Initiated: 1912; Trade: Lithographer. A native of Brooklyn, Ernst Lauckhardt received his education in the public schools. He entered the firm of Trautmann, Bailey and Blampey in 1888 as an apprentice artist. He advanced his career at the same firm, rising to the positions of Vice President and Director. He was a member of the General Society for thirty years. Beyond his service as president, Mr. Lauckhardt held the offices of Second Vice President (1923) and Vice President (1924). Additional service to the Society included committee memberships: Library Committee (1913-1922, 1941-1942), Finance Committee (1926-1928), Membership Committee (1929-1930, 1935, 1938-1940), Museum Committee (1934) and Nominating Committee (1934-1937).
GSMT President Portrait, Francis N. Howland
Francis N. Howland (1844-1932); Initiated: 1900; Trade; Carpenter. Born in Athens, Greene County, New York, where he received his primary education, he also attended schools in Hudson, New York and Eastman's College at Poughkeepsie. In 1900, Howland began the Candee, Smith & Howland Company, dealers in building materials; he served as Treasurer and Vice President, eventually becoming President in 1915 upon the death of General George Moore Smith. Besides his presidential role he served as Second Vice President (1920) and Vice President (1921). His full twenty-four years of service to the General Society included participation with the Literary Committee (1901, 1903-1904), Library Committee (1902), Museum Committee (1915-1919), Finance Committee (1923-1925), Nominating Committee (1927) and Pension Committee (1928-1932). In 1914 Howland was President of the Mechanics and Trader's Exchange of the City of New York. He also served on important committees of the Masons' Material Dealers' Association and the Building Trades Employers' Association, and was a trustee of the Broadway Savings Bank. Other affiliations included the West End Association, the Sons of the Revolution and the Chamber of Commerce.
GSMT President Portrait, Frank E. Wise
Frank E. Wise (1852-1936); Initiated: 1911; Trade: Building Materials. A New Yorker, Mr. Wise entered the building industry as a member of his father’s firm, Nathaniel Wise Company, and subsequently headed his own firm, Frank E. Wise & Son. He built extensively on the West Side of Manhattan. Besides his presidential year, he served the General Society in official capacities as Second Vice President (1917) and Vice President (1918). His work on Standing Committees included the Library Committee (1912-1916), Literary Committee (1913-1916), Sinking Fund Committee (1915-1916 [Chairman]), Finance Committee (1920-1922, 1924-1926, 1928-1930, 1930-1932), Nominating Committee (1921), Membership Committee (1923) and Pension Committee (1931) with a grand total of twenty-four years of service. He also made contributions to other organizations, such as being a trustee with the Building Materials Exchange and with the Harlem Savings Bank, as a trustee beginning in 1892 and service as Vice President in 1927.
GSMT President Portrait, Frederick R. Usher
Frederick R. Usher (1859-1942); Initiated: 1903; Trade: Mason. Born in Troy, N. Y., Mr. Usher went to New York City at the age of 19 years, entered the building business and became a member of the firms of Robert L. Darragh Co., (GSMT member, 1860) which built the World Building on Park Row, and the John I. Downey (GSMT member, 1903) Company, which built the old Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. He retired in 1920. For many years he was a member of the arbitration board of the Building Trades Employers Association. His additional service with the General Society included the offices of Second Vice President (1906) and Vice President (1907) as well as participation on the Membership Committee (1919) and the Finance Committee (1920-1922). Notably, Mr. Usher also represented the Society in the Board of Trustees of the Webbs' Academy and Home for Shipbuilders (1914-1920).
GSMT President Portrait, George D. Hilyard
George D. Hilyard (1869-1934); Initiated: 1892; Trade: Mason. After attending Friends' Seminary on Rutherford Place and Sixteenth Street, and learning the trade of masonry from his father, George Hilyard conducted a general contracting business. A member of the General Society for forty-four years, he provided thirty-nine years of additional service as Second Vice President (1911), Vice President (1912), and member of various Standing Committees (Finance: ten years, School: eleven years, Library: four years, Development: six years). Additional afiliations included the American Museum of Natural History and the New York Bible Society.
GSMT President Portrait, George E. Hoe
George E. Hoe (1844-1930); Initiated: 1885; Trade: Builder. Forty-five years a member of the society. Besides holding the office of president, Mr. Hoe served on the School Committee (1892-1893) and the Finance Committee (1897-1899). Provided initial funding for the George E. Hoe Prizes, awarded annually for outstanding graduates of the Mechanics Institute. A native New Yorker, he graduated from City College in 1864, and was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon and Phi Beta Kappa fraternities. He was also a member of the Sons of the American Revolution.
GSMT President Portrait, Gerard A. Dengel
Gerard A. Dengel (1925-1994); Initated: 1972; Trade: Hoisting Engineer. A native of Brooklyn and a United States Navy Veteran, Gerard A. Dengel was a machinist and mechanic who became the Director of Research and Education for the International Union of Operating Engineers, Local Union #14. As well as holding the office of vice president in 1981, Mr. Dengel served the General Society on many other Standing Committees throughout a period of 17 years. Most notably these included the chairmanships of the Literary Committee (1973, 1975-78), Executive Committee (1981), Finance Committee (1983) and Museum Committee (1984-1986). In 1974, he served as a faculty member for the Xavier Institute of Industrial Relations at 30 West 16th Street in Manhattan, as a lecturer in Parliamentary Procedure and Philosophy of Labor Relations classes. Additional civic involvement included membership in The Order of AHEPA and the New York Athletic Club.
GSMT President Portrait, Gerard Drohan, Sr.
Gerard Drohan, Sr. (1932-2006); Initiated 1972; Trade: Plumber. A native of Yonkers, Gerard Drohan served in the United States Army for two years during the Korean Conflict. After discharge, Mr. Drohan began a career as a plumber. He graduated from the Mechanics Institute in 1961, earning the George E. Hoe Award for outstanding performance. Upon graduation, Mr. Drohan was chosen as an instructor for the Mechanics Institute, continuing in this capacity until 1982. As a General Society member, Gerard Drohan also served for over thirty years as the member or chairman of multiple committees. He was awarded the General Society Founders Day Medal in 2005. As a member of the New York City Plumbers Union #1, he was involved with all phases of plumbing, including service as the Superintendent of NYC Main Water Tunnel #3.
GSMT President Portrait, Gilbert J. Burnett
Gilbert J. Burnett (1842-1918); Initiated: 1875; Trade: House Smith. Additional official service included Second Vice President (1885) and Vice President (1886). Also served on the Library Committee (1876-1877), and Literary Committee (1878-1884).
GSMT President Portrait, Henry L. Slote
Henry L. Slote (1825-1906); Initiated: 1864; Trade: Stationer. Building Committee Secretary in 1888 that worked to identify a new location for the GSMT at 18 East 16th Street. A member of the society since 1864, serving faithfully for nineteen years as an officer and a member of the Library and Literary Committees as well as aforementioned Building Committee.
GSMT President Portrait, Hugh Getty
Hugh Getty (1849-1922); Initiated: 1894; Trade: Carpenter. Born in Ireland, but of Scotch descent, High Getty came to New York at the age of eighteen. He learned the trade of carpentry and eventually entered the General Contracting business, where he remained for fifty years. He was a prolific builder, specializing in hotels and residences, with a large presence in the Tribeca area. Mr. Getty was a General Society member for forty-five years. In addition to the presidency, he held the offices of Second Vice President (1905) and Vice President (1906). His involvement with Standing Committees included service on the Library Committee (1903-1904), Finance Committee (1908), Sinking Fund Committee (1899-1902, 1909-1910), School Committee (1913-1915) and Nominating Committee (1920-1922). His period of active participation extended over eighteen years. His long list of other affiliations included posts with the Building Trades Employers Association, the Mason Builders Association, the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, and the Hebrew-Christian Publication Society. Some additional memberships were with the St. Andrew’s Society, the New York Mercantile Exchange, the Real Estate Board of New York, the Master Carpenters Association and the Rumson Club of New Jersey.
GSMT President Portrait, Jacob A. Westervelt
Jacob A. Westervelt (1800-1879); Initiated: 1831; Trade: Shipwright. Born in Bergen County New Jersey, Westervelt was a major East Coast shipbuilder for over 50 years, whose firms constructed vessels of all descriptions. Prominently served as the 72nd Mayor New York City (1853-1855). In 1873,Westervelt was appointed as New York City Commissioner of Docks and at the same time elected President of the Board of Dock Commissioners.
GSMT President Portrait, James Boyd
James Boyd (1863-1947); Initiated: 1896; Trade: Candle Maker. Boyd was the last member of a family that established a tallow-candle making business in New York City in 1819; the firm of James Boyd, which operated over a span of four generations, was dissolved in 1925. Besides the presidency, his service to the General Society included positions as Second Vice President (1915), Vice President (1916), Treasurer (1923) and memberships on mulptple committees including the Sinking Fund Committee (Secretary, 1909-1910, Chairman, 1911-1914), Finance Committee (Chairman, 1920-1921), and Nominating Committee (Secretary, 1920). He graduated from the University of the City of New York (now New York University) in 1882, a member of the Zeta Psi fraternity, eventually becoming its national president in 1922. Other associations included the New York Produce Exchange, the New-York Historical Society and the University Club.
GSMT President Portrait, James Hopkins
James Hopkins (1869-1947); Initiated: 1900; Trade: Wire Maker. James Hopkins was born at 54 King Street in New York City. He received his education at Clark Street Grammar School, Thirteenth Street Grade School, The College of the City of New York and Spencer Business College. Since 1886, he was in charge of Hopkins & Co, fabricators of wire, which was founded by his grandfather, James Hopkins in 1840. He retired in 1932. He was a member of the General Society for forty-seven years. In addition to the presidency, Mr. Hopkins served in office as Second Vice President (1919) and Vice President (1920). His further contributions included service on the Audit Committee (1901-1918), the Finance Committee (1922-1924), the School Committee (1925-1940) and the Membership Committee (1945), and as Inspector of Elections (1946-1947). Mr. Hopkins other activities included being a trustee of the Dollar Savings Bank, a director of the Northern Dispensary, and memberships with the Veterans Association of the Seventh Regiment and the New York Athletic club.
GSMT President Portrait, John Beattie
John Beattie (1843-1912); Initiated: 1892; Trade: Painter. Was also Second Vice President (1902) and Vice President (1903). Beattie also served the General Society on the School and Pension Committees for many years. Additionally, he was also at one time President of the Master Painters' National Association. His own business was that of painter and decorator.
GSMT President Portrait, John H. McCullagh
John H. McCullagh (1842-1919); Initiated: 1883; Trade: Builder. Besides his presidency, John McCullagh contributed twenty-three years of total service to the Society, notably in the official posts of Second Vice President (1908) and Vice President (1909). His service on Standing Committees included the School Committee (1893-1907), Finance Committee, (1911) and Pension Committee (1912-1916). Brother John H. McCullagh also presented another item in this collection to the General Society: an old certificate of appointment, dated July 13, 1812, of his grandfather as a fireman of the City of New York.
GSMT President Portrait, John H. Waydell
John H. Waydell (1827-1911); Initiated: 1857; Trade: Cooper. President in the Centennial year 1885. Served the General Society for twenty five years, as Second Vice President, Vice President, and member of the Library, Finance and Sinking Fund Committees.
GSMT President Portrait, John L. Hamilton
John L. Hamilton (1835-1904); Initiated: 1881; Trade: Carpenter and Builder. Born at Newmilns, Ayrshire, Scotland, Hamilton came to the United States in 1853. Served the General Society faithfully for twenty-two years as an officer and a member of the School, Finance, and Trade School Committees. He was involved with the construction of many famous New York buildings, including the Dakota Apartments. Also was President of the Master Carpenters Association and General Secretary of the National Builders Association of America. His other prominent associations included the St. Andrews Society, the New York Scottish Society, the Caledonian Club and the Scotia Masonic Lodge.
GSMT President Portrait, John R. Voorhis
John R. Voorhis (1830-1932); Initiated: 1860; Trade: Stair Builder. With a lifespan of 102 years, the oldest recorded member of the General Society, his membership lasting 72 years. He also served on the Library Committee (1871-1876); the Literary Committee (1880-1882); the Sinking Fund Committee (1883, 1900-1910); the Finance Committee (1884), and the Literary Committee (1885-1886). For 58 years, Mr. Voorhis was also a prominent figure in New York City political and civic arenas, serving in many positions, including as NYC Police Commissioner (1874-1876), the first Comissioner of the New York City Board of Elections (1901-1931) and the Grand Sachem of Tammany Hall, chosen in 1912 at age 83, until his death. Among others, he was also a member of the Holland Society and on the Board of Trustees for the Northern Dispensary.
GSMT President Portrait, Joseph J. Little
Joseph J. Little (1841-1913); Initiated: 1883; Trade: Printer. A native of Bristol, England who moved to the United States in 1846. Began as an apprentice printer at age fourteen, came to New York City in 1848, and eventually started the printing office of Little, Rennie & Co. on Broome street, in 1867. He continally expanded and prospered professionally, renaming the firm as J. J. Little & Co. in 1876. Mr. Little was active in many political and civic organizations. As a Democrat, he was elected and served in the 52nd Congress as a Representative from the 12th District of New York (1891-1893). Beginning in 1890, he served for many years on the New York City Board of Education; after consolidation, he was twice President of the Department of Education, Greater New York. He also served as a director of The Astor Place Bank and trustee of The New York Infant Asylum. Among other affiliations Mr. Little was also a member of the Chamber of Commerce, The American Geographical Society, The American Institute and the Kane Masonic Lodge.

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